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A quick breakdown on how HIV can be transmitted.

This topic aims to show ways in which HIV can and cannot be transmitted. It ties in with a recently published topic found here http://www.drtanandpartners.com/how-does-hiv-enter-the-body/.

This topic will be split into 3 parts; Definite ways of HIV transmission, theoretical ways of transmission, and no way of transmission.

Bear in mind that in order for HIV to be transmitted fluid from a positive person has to come into contact with the negative person. Semen and blood hold high loads of the virus but saliva and vaginal fluid hold very little.


According to Singapore Ministry of Health UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2014.

Definite ways of HIV transmission (risk will be listed as risk per 10000 – so 1/10000 means that for every 10000 people who engage in that activity, 1 person will become infected.

  • Blood transfusion – 9250/10000 (this is only with HIV infected blood which is very rare nowadays as every donor blood sample is screened before use).
  • Needle sharing in intravenous drug use – 63/10000.
  • Needlestick injury – 23/10000.
  • Receptive anal sexual intercourse – 138/10000.
  • Insertive anal sexual intercourse – 11/10000
  • Receptive penile-vaginal sexual intercourse – 8/10000
  • Insertive penile-vaginal sexual intercourse – 4/10000
  • Receptive and insertive oral sexual intercourse – low (too low for accurate numbers).

Estimated risk per exposure to HIV transmission: assume that the ‘source partner’ is always HIV-positive. For a partner of unknown status, the risk is affected by the prevalence of HIV in the relevant community – i.e., the chance that the partner does in fact have HIV. Unless otherwise stated, the sexual acts are always without a condom.

Theoretical ways of HIV transmission:

  • Blood contact onto an open wound – possible but an unlikely scenario as open wounds should be tended immediately in order to reduce the risk of other infections. The risk of a bacterial infection would be higher than an HIV infection.
  • Blood contact onto mouth or eyes – again possible but extremely unlikely unless you happen to be in a horror movie.
  • Dried blood – although HIV can survive in dried blood for several days, the environment has to be favourable and transfer this way is very very unlikely.

No risk of HIV transmission:

  • Breathing the same air as someone.
  • Touching a toilet seat or door knob.
  • Drinking from a water fountain.
  • Hugging, kissing or shaking hands (although kissing may transfer fluids the level of virus in saliva is so low as to make the risk negligible).
  • Sharing utensils.
  • Sharing gym equipment.
  • Skin to skin contact with an HIV positive person even if they happen to have fluid of unknown origin on them (particularly applies to commercial sex workers).
  • Biting or scratching that does not break the skin or draw blood.
  • Essentially, as mentioned above, fluid-fluid contact is necessary for transmission – if this hasn’t happened then there is no risk for HIV.

I hope this helps answer most questions that concern people over possible ways of HIV transmission – if new questions pop up I will try and add to this topic to help allay people’s fears.

Also Read: HIV Rash – Is it STD Rash or HIV Rash


Need more advice?

Come down to Our Clinics for a discussion with Our Doctors, or call our clinics for more information.


  1. Good morning doctor, Recently I visited a csw two day’s before we didn’t do any intercourse but we done mutual masturbation and we done body to body massage including genital rubbing during that time am completely naked and she is on her underwear and trousers because she is on her menstrual period now am really tensed if her menstrual blood got in to my urethra through her panties means any risk of hiv please Doctor please give me a reply

  2. Good evening doctor recently I visited a massage parlour the lady give me body to body massage that time I was naked and the lady is on her menstrual period she didn’t remove her panties now I am really tensed if the menstrual blood got contact with my penile head through her panties is there is any risk of hiv ? Please help me sir I need to go for a hiv testing or any other std ?

    • Please doctor please help me I need a HIV test for the above incident

  3. Hi Dr Jonathan
    I recently had penetrative sexual intercourse with a spa worker.
    I used condom and during the intercourse, I realised that the condom was torn.
    I immediately stopped and washed my penis.
    I didn’t continue with the intercourse.

    Am I at risk of being infected with HIV virus?

    Kindly enlighten me.

    Thank you!

    • Yes, there is a risk of HIV transmission through this exposure, as well as a number of other STDs. Please visit us for proper consult and evaluation. If the exposure is within 72 hours, you may even consider PEP.

  4. Dear Doctor

    I tested in your clinic (neg) a few months ago whilst visiting your country on business. Whilst there, I had to take very strong PPI and antiacid to treat stomach ulcer for a few months. Do I need to test again since I did not have any risk BUT worry that I only ate at restaurants, so if HIV+ chef’s blood got into my food I can be infected since I had virtually no stomach acid to kill the virus or is there no risk of transmission? I ordered both hot and cold dishes. Thank you

  5. Hi Dr, sorry brother again, recently i was visit the CSW (wihout penetration sex oral, anal and vaginal) what i had is handjob with condom. the CSW was perform handjob with condom for me around 2 to 3 minute then rest i continue until i ejaculate. the main concern for me is the risk of STD and hiv. i was checking the CSW hand without any sore, wound or bleeding. she all the time was wear pants and underwear and i got touch her body and breast. am i at the risk. please help dr. thks

  6. Hello doctors,i had a protected sex with a CSW 2 weeks ago.But she performed unprotected oral sex on me 1st then during foreplay,my penis tip briefly touched or lightly pushed her vaginal opening 3 times.about 1 second each time.It was just like a teasing action.Like “knocking” sort of thing.As in there was no penetration.Not even the head.It was only the penis tip that touched the opening.But her vagina was still dry or maybe has very minimal vaginal fluid that moment because i didn’t feel a slippery/wet sensation every time my penis tip hit or touched her opening. She then reminded me or somewhat demanded me that i should wear a condom.It was a good sign for me because it meant that she was vigilant on safe sex. Maybe it was also their policy in that massage parlor.So, i wore a condom before we had insertive vaginal sex.No breakage,slippage until the end. She even was the one who volunteered to remove the condom. She was very careful and keen in removing it.Like a pro….So now,my concern is,which also made me very scared/anxious everyday after the incident,that if i put myself into risk of hiv infection because of the fact that my penis tip briefly touched her “still dry” vaginal opening 3 times( about 1 second each time) and even though her opening was still dry, im still very worried that there was still some vaginal fluid that might entered my urethra.Does the fluid/virus be able to “crawl” or be absorbed to the inside of my urethra?……Am i at risk doc?…i am really very worried and scared.Everyday,whole day,i think about my situation. I cannot even concentrate on my work anymore..please help me assess my risk doc..

    • I do not believe you have any significant risk of HIV infection from the touching. But from penetrative sex there is always a risk, as no condom is 100% protective. If you have any concerns, please visit us for a proper consult and evaluation.

  7. Hi dr, i had exposed today. I go for sex workers. But no sex (no oral, no vaginal, anal). Just hj with condom. She hj me with condom for 5 minute then i hj myself. I toom out the condom and wear condom myself.

  8. Dear Dr,

    While masterbating my self unfortunately vagina fluid in hand contact the urethra and than I ejaculate my seemen after the second women touches my top side of penis with his vagina fluid.
    It causes any HIV infection

    I read that the HIV in fluid once expose to air it will die.

    It is true

    Please replay

  9. Hello. Worried about my child. I bought her ice cream after dental visit and saw some liquid on the chocolate which should had not been there and strange colour. Ice cream was made 3 months ago. I am not sure what it was, but if it were something containing blood, would even taking into account the ice cream was frozen virus would not be able to infect my child because it is not strong enough to infect? I know it survives frozen, but can it still infect in such conditions? Thank you

  10. Hello, doc,
    I Had a deep kissing last night with a girl, and i had an open cut inside my mouth. am i at risk of getting an HIV infection because of this exposure

  11. Dear Doctor

    How long HIV can survive and can infect after an HIV+ chef cut himself on a peace of food which was put in a box and stored in a cold place? The food was eaten by someone 24 hours later. thank you

  12. Hello Dr. Jonathan A question…
    I had a mutual masturbation (penis to penis/frot) with a guy from collage I was on top of him while doing it also hard kissing and he also tried to fingering my ass, we did not eyaculated ( he had precum at the end) or penetrate each other , we didn’t have any sexual intercourse (oral or anal), did I have risk for HIV transmission? Thank u

  13. Hello,

    I received a rapid finger prick test for HIV 52 hours ago. Test was negative. My concern is that the glove which the individual doing the test was wearing came into contact with previously disposed items in the biohazard trash can when disposing of testing items from my blood draw. He then began to unwrap a bandage while he had the same glove on. I did not put the bandage on my finger. I did hold the bandage in my other hand for approximately 15 minutes. I did have a cut that was bandaged on the hand I was holding the bandage he gave me with. After I left, I put hand sanitizer on my hands and felt that it accidentally went into the finger prick because it stung. There was no visible evidence of blood on the bandage or on my hands. There was a woman who was tested immediately before me. What is the risk of transmission if his glove and then the bandage were contaminated with HIV blood? Thank you for your help and advice.

    • Dr Elaine Loh

      Your risk is negligible.

      • Dr. Loh,

        Thank you for your response! Would you recommend testing again for medical reasons, or perhaps ease of mind?

        Thank you, J

  14. Senthil

    I am a Male. I went to massage parlor. Myself wearing a Disposable Underwear and the girl was Naked. I am on top of the girl and rubbing vagina with penis nearly for 5 mins after that I ejaculated in Disposable Underwear.
    On the whole session I was wearing Disposable Underwear and I have not removed it in any way. But the girl was naked.
    Their is No Penetrated Sex, No bare Penis vagina rubbing, No kissing and fingering.
    Only penis vagina rubbing.
    I am wearing Disposable Underwear.

    This situation is Risk for HIV ?

    • I do not believe there is any risk of HIV from this exposure. However, if you are concerned then please speak to your doctor and get tested.

      • Thanks Doctor.
        Should I have to get tested for this situation ?
        Does above situation Warrent PEP ?

        • I have said there is no risk. Why would the situation warrant PEP if there is no risk? If you have further concerns, you may visit us for a proper assessment and consultation.

  15. Hi Dr

    I recently hve a protected sex with a massage lady in sg.
    After the sex I realised that I have a small non bleeding open sore at the very end of the penis shaft .its between the scrotum and the end of the penis shaft.
    This area is not covered by condom. So my qns is assume she is hiv + and if infected fluid might have “touched” the sore a few times during thrusting. what are the risk of hiv transmission here.

    • The risk of “unprotected” vaginal intercourse would be approximately 1:260 exposures assuming she was HIV positive. There are also other potential STDs you could have gotten which are certainly more common than HIV. Please visit our clinics for a proper evaluation if you have concerns.

      • Hi Dr
        For my case is PROTECTED sex
        Just that I have a small open sore wound at the bottom of the penis shaft near scrotum which is impossible to enter the virgina.
        I understand that all penetration sex with or with has a risk.i have doubled check the condom is intact.
        But my main concern is the sore in contact with virgina fluid outside the virgina.
        How possible will a transmission be ?

  16. hy Dr. , l ve anxiety Nico’s my hiv+ cousin mistakenly throw his rapper(cloth) to me and it enters my mouth, I cnt feel any wet or blood on it, maybe tears or saliva, or sweat.but d cloth touched my mouth am l at risk

  17. Hi, doc. Im a male, what is the risk of getting HIV if I masturbate with other vaginal fluid? Cant see any skin tears, what if it get into my urethra?

    • That is an interesting question. As a matter of scientific theory is does sound plausible that a HIV infection can occur when infected vaginal fluid contacts the foreskin or urethra. I must say I am not aware of any case reports of such a form of transmission of HIV. My personal opinion is that the risk is negligible.

      • Jackdolson

        Thats the case happened to me too.M Still in trauma and i know its far way to be happened but not impossible theoritically.
        1. Do vaginal fluid survive for more than 1 mins after leaving the host ?

        2. Is it that much easy to get entered through male mucous membranes for hiv+ ?


        Is it only possible through the lining of urethra ?

        • Vaginal fluid is not really ‘alive’, but I assume you mean does HIV survive in vaginal fluid. Yes, it can survive, but this does not mean that it is infective. There are many factors that will impact infectivity. Also, we obviously cannot design experiments to study HIV infectivity through the urethra vs around other mucous membranes on the penis. Suffice to say, there has been no case of HIV transmission through this type of exposure ever reported, so I would really not worry if I were you.

  18. Hi doc. Yesterday I went to have some fun with a prostitute. I didn’t have penetration sex with her. She gave me a blowjob with condom, and I wore a condom rub against her genitals. However, at the end, she took off the condom and gave me a handjob. I believe her hand contains her genital fluid. If she is hiv+, what is the risk i getting it? Thankyou!

  19. Hi doc. Does one need to have a cut on the penis to transmit the hiv without protection?

  20. WorriedLeo

    Dear dr.
    Im very worried &nervous. Day by day i couldnt sleep thinking about it.
    Am i at risk of being transmitted from HIV+ blood which splatters in my eyes? It’s been 3 months. And i did my blood test today. Still waiting for the results. Should i do blood test again in 6 months time?

  21. Hello, I had two insertive anal encounters with later confirmed hiv positive guy. I took two oraquick swab tests. First test at 2 months after exposure and second test at 5 months after exposure. Can I trust these results?

    Thank you

  22. Quick question on risk was anal fingered by csw is thier any risk of hiv if the csw has a cut/wound on the finger and should i be tested

  23. Hello, can you please help me? I masturbated a guy (he was leaking pre-cum, and I used my saliva and his pre-cum as lubricant) and after this, immediately, I touched a fresh bleeding scratch/graze(wound)(1.5cm long, 2-3mm wide,size of a penny,left a small scar) from a tree branch, with the same hand(on which I had his pre-cum). After 5 minutes,I washed it with water and soap, but am afraid that on the palms there was still pre-cum left, that was rubbed into the wound while washing. Is it risk of hiv or other sti?Thank you for what you’re doing! 6 weeks after I have a mild rash and a cold sore on lips.

  24. Jeremy elliott

    Hi dr,

    Had oral and vaginal sex both protected with someone I’m not sure has something but don’t trust. From behind and was very quick and did Not ejaculate. 30 seconds or so after I took the condom off and blew it up, no holes it held air fine. Paranoid my lip may have touched the very edge when blowing it up but not positive. Is there any risks involved here? For any stds?

    Appreciate in advance

    • There is a risk with any form of penetrative intercourse. Condoms lower this risk significantly but they are not 100% protective. If you have concerns, please see a doctor for testing.

  25. Hi doc, I recently had a m4m erotic massgae. we had massage for about 40 minutes and he penetrated me for a couple of minutes before we finish. later I asked him to pull out and he didn’t cum. I asked him if it’s safe, he said YES that’s safe, but I am still afraid if this will catch any STD, I read a lot online says no cum penetration would be at about 0.65% of chance, should I go visit doctor soon? Thank you.

  26. Hi doctor…one week.ago a gay rubbed my ass with no penetration…is it risky for hiv ..and we didn’t use condoms.but there were no fluids at all

  27. Dear Doctor,

    I went to a massage parlor and the girl gave me a massage with her body which include both of our genital rubbing against each other. She did performed oral sex on me after that. We do not have any penetrative sex. I do not know her HIV status, I am afraid some of her vaginal secretion might came in contact with my penis tip and shaft. If it is, am i at risk for HIV?

    Thank you in advance doctor.

  28. Hi Dr.

    I had an oral sex with a guy whom I met at the gym last Sunday. He cums on my mouth. I spitted it out. Should I be worried?

    Thanks you!

  29. I wrote to CDC before. But the answer was not really helpful.

    1. I’m a 24 years old guy, never kissed & had sex with any girls.
    2. On 4th June, I went to a beauty spa in Cairo, Egypt. I took a salt body scrub, and chocolate body wrap. (Facebook.com/indradayspa)
    3. The masseuse did the scrub on my body with a bare hands and long coloured nails. I exposed my whole body except wore a disposable boxer, and nothing happened at that boxer area.
    4. At that time, I had some back acne, one big popped acne on my chest, and recently paper cut not deep. Is there any risk for me what if the person had cut on her hands, or vaginal fluid that direct contact with my broken skin? Can HIV virus survive in salt solution (warm, i read salt solution pH is 8), or chocolate medium?
    5. A week later, I went to see a doctor cause I developed rashes, and itchy at my arms. The doctor said maybe insect bites. And don’t have to worry if I didn’t have sex with the girl.
    6. On 23rd June (I was at Abu Dhabi), I had scattered redness at my forearm, and disappeared at the same night. It was really hot at Abu Dhabi. I asked the medical team at the airport but the doctor said that my risks of transmission is unlikely.
    7. I was on anti-histamine for a week since then. And paracetamol in between.
    8. In the meantime, I had some ball pen sized petechiae at my arms, since week two. It didn’t bleach when I pressed. I never had that before. It is still present when I’m writing this.
    9. On 13-15th July, I had so much sneezing, but no flu. On 23rd July, I had sore throat and flu.
    10. On 24th July (50 days), I took a HIV rapid test at government clinics at Shah Alam, Malaysia (I don’t know the generation but the one with finger blood). The result was non-reactive. The doctor said HIV is not transmitted that way. The doctor even didn’t trust me when I was saying that I never had sex, and drugs so why need to do test. But I said like above, since my body was covered by chocolate.
    11. On 28th July, I developed single enlarged bump on my left shoulder then turned out lipoma.
    12. Is my result is conclusive? (As I read normal antibodies develop at 4-6 weeks, but can it be later?)
    13. Thanks for your help. I really hope you can give me some good response.

    • There is zero risk of HIV transmission from the exposure you described. Absolutely none. As such, your result is conclusive.

  30. Chance of hiv from menstrual blood outside body through penile head contact not direct from the vagina.From her thighs please reply doctor….

  31. Hi doctor thanks for your reply. Correctly the exposure is before 84 days. Can i take test now. During this period i dont have any feaver. But i have sore throt . And after 58 days i have diarrhea. After i take medicine it resolve. This is the symptoms of hiv.

    • You can take a 4th gen test now, it will be conclusive. A 3rd gen test will be conclusive at 90 days.

      • Today i gave hiv pcr test. This test is good. Or i want to give 4th gen test. This test is old test.

  32. Doctor

    I am very worried due to protected vagional intercourse with call girl. I asked her status before sex she told she is clean after she give blowjob with condom and she is top for 1min vagional intercourse with condam and water lubrication.after 1min i ejaculate outside my sperm in condom the condom is not break. I am afraid of getting hiv due to this exposure.

  33. Hi doctor In june 10 i had protected vagional sex for 1min in malaysia. After 46 days i take hsv2 chalmydia and syphills. Hsv 2 and syphills negative and chalmydipa is positive. There is any chance of getting hiv.two weak before i had diarrhea. And some weight loss. And i dont get any feaver till now [79days].and one year before i had chalmydia.and i take medicine for this. Any chance of getting hiv.next weak i am planning to take 4th gen hin antibody and antigen test. Pls reply as soon as posdible.

    • I asked her about his status she told i dont have hiv. I tested 3 month before. She give blowjob with condom. And vagional sex with condom for 1min. After i ejuculate in condom there is no leak in the condom after she remove the condom and with tissue she wipe out. Before sex she put some water base lubrication in the condom.

    • Of course there is always a risk of HIV from unprotected sex with someone you do not know.

  34. Sorry Dr to bother you but I had the following encounter at a strip club:

    1. Light kissing

    2. Fingered her with fingers I bite could have minor cuts

    3. She stroked my penis a few times no ejaculation

    4. I lightly sucked her bubs

    5. She pushed her panties to my lips only may have been wet but I don’t know

    No insertive sex of any kind!

    Any concern of any transferable diseases? Would you refrain from sex with your partner? Any cases from any of the above 5 actions? Thanks

    • There is no significant risk of any STD from this exposure.

    • Ok, I understand no significant risk but IF ANY potential which stds should I be most concerned

      • Theoretically you can get HSV (herpes), HPV (warts), and syphilis through skin-to-skin contact with an infected surface.

  35. concernedman

    Hi Doctor,

    I had an encounter with a KTV hostess about 12 days ago, and i’m unsure of their status or if they do go for regular screenings.

    However, during foreplay i accidentally slid into her unprotected, which i took out immediately to put a condom on before proceeding with protected intercourse. However, after the intercourse i realised she was bleeding inside.

    She claimed her period just ended, therefore the blood could be from there.

    I just caught a flu with no fever 2 days back and i’m extremely concerned if I could have contracted anything from her. What are the chances of contracting hiv if i had just accidentally slide in unprotected? I’m still unable to do the rapid test as i’m still short of the window period and i’ve been really concerned about this

    Appreciate your advice and thanks for the postings!

    • There is potential risk although it is low. We cannot make any diagnosis based on symptoms, only testing.

  36. Russell uyeh

    Hello Doctor
    I had a little fling with a lady I am not sure of her status.we kissed deeply,I fingered her and she gave me a blow job.didn’t penetrate her but after a few week I fell ill and got strange symptoms like swollen lymph nodes and others.did a HIV test twice in a space of two months and it was negative…..what are my chances of not being infected

    • Your chances of NOT being infected are 100%, as your tests are negative and the initial risk was essentially zero anyway.

  37. A razor cut a person with HIV in the evening, in the morning of the next day, that razor cut another person, and blood is involve in both cases. Please Doctor, what is the risk of the person being infected?

    • There are many factors that would influence infection risk, including viral load and amount of blood present. Overall risk is likely very low given the amount of time between cuts.


    somebody use his finger to remove pimples from the skin of HIV infected person and after about 10 hours he use the same finger to removes pimples from another person. Can the second person be infected?

    • I would say the risk is extremely low. There has never been any similar case reported before.

      • JUSTICE

        Please Doctor, what if the pimples were removed from the second person immediately after the infected person, that is within 10 minutes

  39. ConcernedTony

    Hi Doctors

    I had a risky exposure 35 days ago, took PEP after 55 hours and just completed it yesterday.

    Here are my results so far:

    Day 15,5: RNA PCR: Negative
    Day 15,5: Ab (3rd Gen): Negative
    Day 21: Core Rapid: Negative
    Day 22,5: RNA PCR: Negative
    Day 22,5: Ab (3rd Gen): Negative
    Day 32: Core Rapid: Negative
    Day 33: 1st Day After PEP – Ab (3rd Gen): Negative
    Day 33: 1st Day After PEP – P24 Ag: Negative
    Day 35: 3rd Day After PEP – Rapid: Negative

    I am planning to test after another 2 weeks with the PCR test (2 weeks after PEP) however have three questions for now:

    1) What is your opinion of these results so far?

    2) Have you seen anyone test negative with the Duo Test immediately after PEP who then goes on to turn positive?

    3) What is the difference between a third generation antibody test and a fourth generation antibody test? (The information via Google is lacking with this)

    Thank you in advance.
    Keep up the great work!


    • I would consider your tests essentially conclusive and to be honest extremely excessive. I have not seen anyone test negative post-PEP subsequently turn positive (provided there were no other high risk exposures within the window period). The 3rd generation antibody test only checks for HIV antibody, while 4th generation tests check for both antigen and antibody.

  40. Ajay Nair

    Hi Doctor,

    I have been having an irritation of the penis tip and foreskin and was being treated by a dermatologist with Elidil and Nizoral creams. I still have some sores and redness. I had a sexual encounter with a girl I don’t know well. I fingered her for a while and them had protected sex. After sex, while removing the condom and cleaning, I suspect that the vaginal fluid on my finger and outside of the condom would have definitely come in contact with the open sores on my penis. Is there a risk of HIV infection in this case?

    Regards, Ajay

    • There is a low risk even with protected intercourse. Please speak to your doctor or visit us for consult and evaluation.

      • Ajay Nair

        Thanks Dr. I will try to consult youASAP. But I understand that i may have to wait for some time for the blood test to show the correct result. Meanwhile, just to understand- you said there is a low risk – is it because of the sores or the medication that i am applying? Otherwise i was under the impression that protected sex is generally safe. Regards. Ajay

        • Condoms will be up to 98% protective. So yes, protected sex is generally safe, just not 100%. We can have a conclusive HIV result with rapid testing 28 days post-exposure. However, if you have symptoms of concern, do come by earlier for evaluation (there are many other STDs which are much more common than HIV).

  41. Hi
    Sorry for my bad english.

    Dr iam very confused last 8 months before i tested hiv and std. Chlamydia is positive i take medicine.then 45 day before i had protected sex for 1min with call girl in malaysia. Afterthat i test for uti is positive then i take medicine for uti after some days i had sores in my face and body. I am very afraid now this is due to hsv. by this 1min exposure hsv will transmit or it is due to side effect of uti medicine.kindly send reply as soon as possible.iam very depressed.

  42. Hello, I have a neighbor who I try to avoid, but run into outside from time to time. She disclosed information to me in passing that I’d rather not know. For instance I know the she continuously sleeps with men and never uses protection, I am a full blown hypochondriac so that alone makes me want to avoid contact. My anxiety always gets the best of me. Anyways, this evening I was walking my dog outside with my toddler when the neighbor and her son came out and my toddler ran ahead and the neighbor picked her up before I could get to them, I went to grab my kiddo and she initiated an awkward side hug with me. I noticed her shirt was wet and asked if she had been swimming, she replied that her nipple piercing was infected and had oozed pus so she washed it then put a wet wash clothe in her thin sports bra to keep it moist. My toddler nor I have broken skin that I could find, but I do have a lot of acne on my shoulder and arms. My thoughts are what if her pus seeped through that wash rag and was wet on her shirt. I am pregnant and so overprotective of my daughter, what are the chances that she could have transmitted hiv through her wet shirt, or other stds? I took us inside and bathed us both immediately but am freaking out. I am also pregnant. Please help, do we need to consult our doctors?

    • There is zero risk of HIV transmission from this encounter, and I do not believe you need to see a doctor for this. However, it sounds like you may have underlying anxiety issues – I would recommend you seek some evaluation and possible treatment for this.

  43. I work in Blood serum manufacturing plant. last week i have a cut in my hand through paper file little blood oozes out from that cut. then i touched the blood sample which was in falcon tube and after few minute i touched the cut area with the same hand in which i hold the blood sample.

    is there any chance of getting HIV ?

  44. Massmor

    is it not possible for infected blood in the mouth to find its way to the blood stream through the mucous membrane or the points which provide opening for the bleeding in gums?

    • There is no risk in this manner. No cases ever reported through kissing. Saliva kills the virus.

  45. Massmor

    Hi doctor. I am a 22 year old guy leaving in Canada, about 2 weeks ago I was at a night club and I met this girl…we had an open mouth kiss for about 3 minutes, from there I went to the washroom, and when I spit my saliva had traces of blood, am not sure if it was mine or hers. If it was hers and I also had bleeding gums at the time, how are the risks of contracting HIV?

  46. Hi doctor​I am HIV positive and my boyfriend he’s negative so today he putted his penis on my Virgin mouth he didn’t put inside then I stopped his could he be infected

  47. abcdabcd

    Dear Doctor,

    You say in this page that skin to skin contact with HIV positive person even if they have fluid of unknown origin is NO risk.
    1. Does that mean that a HIV positive person with bleeding cut in the hand giving handjob is no risk activity?
    2. What is the blood touches glans area?
    3. What is the cut was healing?

    Thank you.

    • There have been absolutely zero cases of this type of transmission ever reported. We can thus conclude the risk is effectively zero.

      • abcdabcd

        Thank you doctor.
        1. Whenever experts say that there is zero risk with handjob for HIV, do they already accout for the fact that blood or genetical fluids may touch penis glans?
        2. Could you please briefly explain how exposure with handjob is zero risk even with bodily fluids, but with insertive sex it is not zero risk although the same fluid touches the penis head?

  48. George

    I work in a printing press. Last week I have a cut on my thumb that is nearly healed. Yesterday while cutting fired I accident opened the cut and bled a bit then after finishing with the firewood, the bleeding had stopped. So I went to the office sink and I washed off the blood with water, then I dried the cut area with a shared towel that hung near the sink for drying hands. My worry is that the towel was already wet from being used by other people in tye office.

    1. Suppose an HIV+ person used the towel and left sme blood there, can I get HIV from that
    2. What is the chance of contracting hiv through cuts?

    • There is no risk from the above exposure. There have been no documented cases of such transmission.

  49. Concerned Gerald

    dear doctors

    i write u from cambodia. i am an exchange student from greenland here for work to teach english to local kids. four days ago i engaged in anal fingering with a hiv + young adult. he undoubtedly fingered himself then fingered me. he didn’t know he was hiv + until i asked him to take a test which was roughly just under 60 hours from our time together (56 hours to be exact). he is not on any medication or arvs as he didn’t know he was +. my concern for your advice. i was put on Tribuss while at the doctor – this is the only PEP available to me here now, I took the first dose 56 hours after the episode while at the doctor. the doctor put me on this because he fingered his anus before fingering me however he was a young and seems liked an inexperienced doctor. healthcare here is limited so i come to this site as i need to know your professional opinion from your experiences with this subject.

    i) was PEP needed for this?
    ii) in your experience is 56 hours too late for PEP?
    iii) people who start PEP at this time, what is the percentage that will have seroconversion occur and make them +?

    yours hopefully in good health.

    • If it was just anal fingering, then I do not believe you are at significant risk to warrant PEP. 56 hours is not too late for PEP, it is still very effective up to 72 hours post-exposure, although earlier is better.

  50. Beyers

    Hi Doctors

    I sure you receive this daily from thousand people across the globe and I say thank you for your time and patient for it. You guys do a great job to keep people who make silly mistake in check with the reality of possible outcome. I’m sorry in advance for not so good English as I try my best.

    I know I’m human and we all make mistake but I made one that is eat me up. I come to you and this forum as I had an experience a week ago which I need your advise. I currently work and live in Cairo, Egypt and had a weekend visit with friends to a nearby town last Thursday to Sunday 23 June to 25 June. On Saturday morning the 24th June, I met a Transgender Thai CSW as I was curious about the experience for my first time. I got her detail from the Google and I visit her. In there I didn’t plan on being a risk and we begin session with me protecting both her penis and mine with condoms I buy before going to see her. I began oral on her then she asked if I wanted to insert her. She apply a lubricant which I not sure what type and brands. I then insert her for a few strokes but then I got scare and pul out (so protected insertive anal here). She was then masturbating with my penis (with the condom on). We stop for like five second cause she then ask me if she can insert me and I was okay to just try for it. She then use the lubricant to touching my bum to put around, then she penetrate me for two strokes for about three second and I say stop because it hurt too much. I’m sure she could have her rectal fluid secretion from my covered penis on her hand which was applied against my bum with the lube and then penetrated me. A week later my bum hurts from it as I clench when there was insertion at the time although I am really hoping it is not a STD. I have no discharge but just pain. This time with her was obviously protected receptive anal however with the extreme high chance of her anal fluid secretions being mixed with the lubricant which enter me is make me worry bad. We then play around and the time was over. After the time I found out that she was recently diagnosed as HIV+ which I know her viral load must be very high. I only find out her status on the Monday morning. I go to pharmacy and taken Trivenz (Atripla) PEP as that is all available here PEP at 55 hour delay post exposure. I will to complete this PEP every day on time even if I get very sick. I saw a doctor two days ago for my bum and he gave me antibiotics and injection in case of Gnorrea and Chlymadia. I feel this is similar to a case of anal fingerings with fluids but not really that is why I come to for, for your opinion and to make easy for my worry.

    My questions are for you:

    1) What are is the likely hood I was infected from this episode?

    2) Did I start PEP too late? (I know the cut off time is 72 hour but read many posts about the studys suggest any PEP taken past 36-48 hours is already to late. What is your opinion or experiences with this?

    3) Have you seen someone or peoples taking the PEP at 55+ hours and remain negative?

    4) What is your opinion of Atripla as the only PEP regimen, have you seen or heard of anyone taking this as PEP and remaining negative?

    5) Have you seen a case like this previously and what was the outcome?

    I am a married man with a child on the way. I am lose my mind with a worry and need to know without there being any optimism for truths what’s the reality of my situation. I come from a conservative family and I can’t level with my wife and my family because they will throw me out to the streets me for a mistake. I have a no place to turn to and and this is the only place I can turn to during this very bad space and times in my once very happy life. I am 10 days in to the PEP treatment and taking it like clock work and need to know what are the odds here with the questions I asked answered in as much a detail as possibly could be.

    Please help me.
    I am desperate, sorry for my long message.

    Thank you.

    • Hi. Overall risk for insertive and receptive unprotected anal with an HIV positive partner would range between approximately 0.1-1.5% per act. PEP is definitely still considered effective within 72 hours, and I have seen many patients remain negative after PEP despite starting >48 hours post-exposure. Atripla is effective as PEP. I believe you have done what you can to minimize your risk and I’m confident you will be fine at the end of your PEP.

      • Beyers

        Hi Dr. Jonathan.

        Thank you for the fast reply.
        I have only one more question, You say you have seen many patients remain negative, for those that don’t remain negative, what is the percentage as this would be PEP failure? I just want to know my realistic odds.

        Thank you.