Understanding the Signs of Pregnancy

Keeping a record of your monthly menstruation helps with early diagnosis of any abnormalitiesMost young mothers-to-be are often familiar with common signs of pregnancy.

Missed period, morning sickness, breast swelling and tenderness, fatigue and a few others are some signs women are familiar to. But what do they mean? Why do they happen?

Missed period – this is one of the most common signs which a woman would relate to the possibility of her being pregnant.  Menstruation is the shedding of the inner walls of the womb when there is no fertilization. When shedding does not occur, this means that the womb needs to maintain its thickened inner wall to support the fertilized egg. Unless irregular, most woman would expect that she’s pregnant a month or so after her supposed menstruation.

Morning sickness and tiredness– nausea and vomiting makes one weak. In early pregnancy, this happens most possibly because of pregnancy hormones. As these hormones lessen the movement of the stomach and intestines, future mothers often feel like vomiting and have less appetite to eat. This is usually managed by eating regularly and not skipping meals. Your gynae may recommend vitamins such as B6 which is relieves nausea as well as stress. Ginger is also proven scientifically to reduce vomiting. Morning sickness normally occurs in the first trimester (first three months of pregnancy).

Breast swelling – prepares the breasts for breastfeeding. In early stages, the breasts especially around the nipples, feel slightly tender and painful. Nipples darken in colour and you may notice small goosebump-like structures around the nipple area known asMontgomerytubercules. Besides darkening of the nipples, you may also notice a vertical dark line on your abdomen, also known as ‘linea nigra’. Women with darker complexion may experience general darkening of her skin.

Headaches – this is usually noticed later in the first trimester. Increased blood pressure is the main culprit. When one is pregnant, it is a signal for the body to pump more blood. The increase in pressure is necessary to push blood to the forming placenta. Usually, the pressure stabilizes later in the second trimester and headaches subside by then. It will be a problem if it doesn’t and a doctor should be noted. Having a good rest, short naps and avoiding noisy places is advisable. If you are trying to cease coffee consumption, it’s better to do it slowly. A sudden withdrawal from coffee or any other caffeine products will cause headaches. Close monitoring of your blood pressure throughout your pregnancy is highly recommended. In all cases of headache, never skip your meals as it will aggravate the pain.

Frequent urination – You may notice that your trips to the bathroom get more frequent. The new ‘pregnancy hormones’ cause this. When one is pregnant, the body pushes more blood to the pelvic area and therefore, more goes to the urinary system than usual. Since you are carrying another being in your body, more waste are produced as a result and more urine has to be excreted. In late pregnancy, the weight of the womb presses onto the urinary bladder which may cause frequent trips to the bathroom. In all cases, never keep yourself from drinking more water. This can aggravate urinary tract infections.

Vaginal spotting somewhere around your expected day of menstruation is alarming and confusing for first-time mothers-to-be. While it negates the fact that you’re pregnant, it also is, in fact, one of the signs of pregnancy. It all depends on its character. Normal menstrual blood on its first few days is dark red, happens around the time where your menses usually start, increasing in amount by the day. ‘Implantation bleeding’ during pregnancy happens a week or a few days before your expected period. When the fertilized egg is implanted in the wall of the womb, some blood are released and seen as vaginal spotting. But when this comes with sharp pain in the abdomen, it may be a sign of ectopic pregnancy (when the embryo is implanted elsewhere besides the womb). Immediately consult a doctor or call for emergency when this happens.

For many women, pregnancy is an exciting and a wonderful experience. Regular check-ups at your gynae can give you peace of mind and thus enhance your pregnancy experience.

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  1. Doctor…..i did D&C operation on September11th nd my period comeout on October 6 for 3days…i have an unprotected sex 30th of October… And nw i have 10day last of period…i have done home test and it comeout negative…..no discharge…… Bt i do have backache,chest ache,tiredness does that means am pregnant….

  2. Hi doc. I started on the depo shot on the 24th of july and had my peroids during August then after my second shot in september the 18th I haven’t gotten my peroid since then and I have experieced some backache and bloating and gas but I dnt have food adversions but I had light bleeding a week before then I took a home pregnacy test on thursdae last week and it came out negative no faint line then since sunday my tummy has had rumbling sounds and I have mild pains on my abdomen and my tummy has slightly grown abit and I am worried now coz I have used condoms in my time of sexual intercourse so could I be pregnant? Coz I thnk my linear nigra is visible or is it my imagination?

    • First of all, it is expected that you do not have any period when on the Depo shots. So I understand it is difficult to tell if you are pregnant or not. Your abdominal symptoms can also be due to many other factors and I will not automatically blame them on a pregnancy. The fact that you did a pregnancy test that was negative shows that it is extremely unlikely you are pregnant. You can repeat a pregnancy test in 2 weeks to be sure. Meanwhile, see your doctor about your tummy symptoms.

  3. Hi Drs. Me and my partner are not sexually active but we do fool around. He ejaculated on the 20th Sept but both of us were fully clothed. However, I can still feel the dampness from my pants. From my understanding, sperms are unable to travel through the microfiber of clothes. We did shower together a few times from 20th – 25th Sept. Any chances of sperms present in precum which can make me pregnant when we shower together? I have been experiencing mild cramps on my lower left abdomen for about 3 days. On top of that, my left waist has been experiencing some pain and I also had some pale yellow discharge too. Could that be a result of ovulation? My last period is on 12th Sept and I understand there is still 2 more weeks till my next cycle. Please advise. Thank you.

    • Dr Justin Sim

      Please don’t worry like this you can’t get pregnant if you didn’t have sex and were essentially fully clothed. Just wait for your period to come and this will confirm.

      • Hi Dr Sim, thanks for the prompt reply. Both of us did not have any form of penetrative sex. Is pregnancy rule out?

        • I’m 20, never been pregnant before. I’ve been on cilest for 4 years, it is a combined pill. I have never missed a period or been late ever. Even before going on birth control. I’ve never been irregular too. I was in Spain the weeks ago and obviously on holiday your busy. I took a few pills late due to confusion as the time difference and I missed one by over 12hrs. A week before my period I started spotting with mild cramps. It lasted 5 days but technically 4 as on the last day of was very light. I noticed the colours ranged from brown, dark red and sort of pink red almost. I finished spotting Monday, the day before I was due on. I’ve still got the slight cramps and I’ve noticed blue veins are more prominent in my breasts too. I’ve got lower back ache and tiredness. Today I noticed a slight amount of white discharge. But I still haven’t come on my period and I still have the cramps but can barely feel them. When I get up to quick it feels sharp then. I’ve taken tests but negative. Maybe it’s still early considering I only stopped spotting monday? I did however on the day of my expected period have a spot of brown, white/ clear

  4. Hi doc,

    My boyfr had peed after his ejaculation the night before he inserted into my vagina.

    But just once and he did not ejaculate.
    Chances of getting pregnant from the precum are high or slim?

    My period is usually 31-32days cycle.
    My last period was 4th sept.

    • You are at risk of pregnancy as long as no contraception was used. Monitor your menstruation. If any doubt, please see a doctor to get checked.

  5. Hi Do
    Last month I went on my period twice (1st to the 5th of Aug and again on 26-30 Aug) is this normal? And also,my boyfriend and I git intimate oon the 30th and again on the 18th SSept. It wasn’t penetrative on both occasions, but he did come on my thigh.. My periods are quite regular, but this this time they were a day late. They started yesterday with a very unusual consitency and volume like my usual periods. Its day 2 today and the pad is only half soaked. Last night was a bit heavy but not the usual. On the 21st of Sept (a day before they began) I took 1500g of Azithromycin just before bed since I’ve been having a throat infection. Since been experiencing nausea, dizziness loss os appetite,palpitations and a very bad taste in my mouth, severe diarrhea and abdominal cramps. I’ve done 2 tests and they are both negative…at the rate at which my flow is going, I doubt I’ll reach day 5. Should I be worried?

    • Regarding your period, yes it can be normal to have period 3 weeks from the last period.
      Regarding your other symptoms, it sounds like you may be experiencing side effects from azithromycin.
      Based on your description, I do not think you are pregnant. If you are concerned, consult a doctor to get a proper assessment.

  6. sir .. i am 17 yrs old.. n my periods are not cuming ..last time my periods came on 16 july.n nw there are no signs of periods.wt should i do.

    • If you are not sexually active (no risk of pregnancy), then you should visit a doctor for further evaluation of your symptoms. You can also feel free to visit us.

    • Could you be pregnant? Or maybe it is caused by some other medical problem like malnutrition, anemia, thyroid disease etc. You should see your doctor.

  7. hi doc, i was 3 days late now my last period was started july 22 and before i had my period last month we had unprotected sex 2 days before my period it lasted for 4 days which normalyy i have a 7 days cycle and have unprotected sex after my period from july 27 and august 2 im expecting to have my period this august 18 bt until now its not coming..last week and until now ive experience swollen breast back pains, and now for 4 days i have a light abdominal cramps which i thought my period is coming because its my signal. Yesterday i have a medium abdominal cramping but as i went to see it just a brownish spot so i put a pad,,as i came home still brown but very light and now i still have adbominal cramping but slight no discharge but still have swollen breast..ciuld i be pregnAnt? Need your response..

    • If you suspect you may be pregnant, the only way to find out is to get tested. You can either do a home pregnancy test, or consult a doctor for advice.

  8. Nonkululeko

    Hello Doc. I’m a 20year old female. Last month, a day after I had sexual intercourse (unprotected) with my partner I experienced an increase flow of discharge which was yellow and smelled fishy. I had to put on sanitary towels for my discharge. Now my discharge smells sour, has a bit of blood but still is yellow… I eperience accasional pains on my womb, I’m gaining weight and complexion, experience headaches, my hands sometimes gets swollen. What could possibly be wrong with me?

    • This definitely sounds like an infection. Please see your doctor for tests and treatments as soon as you can.

  9. Kayla

    Hi doc! So I have been on a regular 42 days period cycle with 6-7 days length and I always get to know when my period will arrive. Never a miss period for as long as I remembered. Last March this year, my period came on the 16th and then the next cycle came on the 9th April. After which, I had on and off light bleeding/spotting (didn’t fill the regular pad at all) with no actual cramp-like period or pms symtoms at all which I always have and that lasted for 6 days. As a result, my next supposed period didn’t came on the 21st May. Now this 2nd June, I’ve having sore breasts with mild cramps, gained weight which I never really easily gained with heat flash and I actually had a full blown cold which is so weird because I don’t get the the flu/cold so easily. Plus, had whitsh fluid discharge and I thought I had my period but it wasn’t. Took a test now that I’m considered 13 days late but it’s a BFN. Should I test with an ultrasound or a blood test instead? Or wait for the next period to come? Thank you for reading this long post! Appreciate it!

    • Hi Kayla, you could do a blood test to check whether you are pregnant or not as the blood test will be accurate. It will still be too early to do an ultrasound scan if you are looking for pregnancy. Otherwise, you could wait for another 1-2 weeks to see if your period arrives.

  10. Help please..
    My ex & I were sexually active all the time for the year & 2months we were together before we were on & off. In February we got back together after two weeks of being off my period & had sex on the 6th, I got my period again on the 13th or 14th & ended the 18th or 19th & had sex again on the 20th & 21, all times unprotected but I was on thepill except the last two times since I had not started the pack until Monday. In March I Got what I think was my period from the 22-26(a lil late too, didn’t last all day the last day) but very light which is not normal for me considering my periods are always heavy & last to 7 days. Through all this time my symptoms have been lower back pain with pain on the left side, strong smell urine, diarrhea at times, constipation, High body temperature that won’t go down, migraines, bloating, pain in my stomach at times, very hungry (mostly at night), fatigue, gas(burping), barely able to keep my eyes open, sleep patterns have changed(don’t go to sleep now till 1, 2, even 3am), sometimes I’m sleepless, frequently urinating, metal taste in my mouth, frequently thirsty(have to keep a water bottle near my bed), mood swings, have even gained a lil weight. Im due for my period supposedly in a day or two & I took one pregnancy test this week(took it Tuesday morning)& it came out negative. But I’ve been having these symptoms for almost two months non stop & it just keeps getting a bit worse. Help.??

    • It is unlikely you are pregnant unless the test you took was dead wrong. You used a good and reliable test kit right? Your symptoms could be due to something hormonal like PCOS or something more generally medical like thyroid problems or something to do with your periods like endometriosis. Basically, I can’t tell you what’s wrong with you. You need to see a doctor and get properly assessed.

  11. ive been fatigued nausea hungry leg cramps abdominal cramping I also have linea negra my daughter is very clingy and whiney im always hungry my last period was three days and now im having pink discharge two days before my period am I pregnant?

    • Dr Justin Sim

      Your symptoms are non-specific, which means that a variety of things may cause them, pregnancy being one possible cause. The only way to tell would be to wait until your period comes or if it is late then do a urine pregnancy test. Unfortunately we would only be guessing without doing the test.

    • Hi, you had your last period 3 days ago and expecting it again in 2 days? The best way to know if you are pregnant or not is to do a pregnancy test.

  12. Hey Doc, so I’m Irregular. I had unprotected sex on Jan 8 2015. Jan 10 and 11 I experienced spottings. I have back Pains and I most of the time I feel like throwing up but don’t. Could I be pregnant? When is it accurate for me to buy a pregnancy test?

    • You had unprotected sex so obviously you can be pregnant. However, pregnancy symptoms do not occur 2 days after sex. It takes time for the embryo to implant in the uterus and the hormone levels to rise before you get pregnancy symptoms. The best time to do a pregnancy test is when you are 2 weeks late.

      • Isɨs marshall

        Hello doc ,
        I too have an irregular period and sometimes it doesn’t come months at a time. I’ve been to the doctors and discovered one of my ovaries are very small and I have a disease (can’t think of the name) where its harder for me to get pregnant I’m not as fertile as most women. I had unprotected sex last month , sept. 7th and it turned on my period I bled for 5-6 days. I then had sex a couple of days after that where I then thought I had my period again but I was only spotting and that lasted about 2 or 3 days. A month later I’m bloated , emotional , very moody ,I dislike foods I liked before, I have headaches , I get nauseous and dizzy , sometimes I’m breathless , my legs hurt and back hurt ,my stomach itches and my body, i have acne a lot now and I have rashes, most are gone . I took a pregnancy test and it came back negative. I don’t know when my next period should come so I don’t know if I took the test too early.also I have a faint dark line from my navel to my breast. Could this be symptoms of something else or a unexpected pregnancy?

        • If your pregnancy test tested negative after 1 month of having sex, then you are not pregnant. Your symptoms is most likely due to deranged hormone levels. It is best to see a doctor for further investigations and advice on your irregular period. You are most welcome to visit us at our clinics.

  13. Hello
    I am 72 days late for my period, i took a test 2 months ago was negative, my breast are not tender jus on and off could i be pregnant

    • So from my calculation, your pregnancy test was done when you were more than 14 days late. Then it really should be accurate. You really need to see a doctor to find out what is causing your delayed period. It could be related to medical issues like thyroid problems.

  14. Marjorie Malilom Merhan

    Hi doc..supposedly my period is last oct.4 but its already oct.10..im delay..im in 9 months after giving birth to my second baby..and when my menstrual period occur after birthing is irregular.then now im curious because my tummy is big i dnt know if it is belly fat or what’.doc did i pregnant??plz reply..tnx..

    One more thng is can u suggest me what to do to flatten my tummy..??,

    • Yes you can be pregnant. Eat healthy and exercise regularly.

  15. Doc i need your help i missed my periods after i used a Morning after pill,i’v used it within 48hours i was suppose to start my periods on the 6th and now its the 8th already all i’m feel right now i’m cramping on my lower stomach started the day i was suppose to start my periods.Do you think i’m pregnant?

    • Maybe. The morning after pill is not 100% effective. More likely this is a side effect of the morning after pill itself.

  16. matutino alog-og

    Please doc need your responce …. until today still no period but she said today she feel pain on her stomach and that usually she feel before period arrive. My question is if she still no period this week its mean she is pregnant? But if the period arrive this week what are those two days spotting last sept. 30 and it was two days and that day was supposed to be her period…. starting 3rd week last
    month til now she is super duper stress of her work also have family problem… pls give us knowledge about this situation or this one of a sign of being pregnant. As I read some comments it says 1 to 2 weeks delayed is better to so a PT that’swhy we are not yet doing some preg. Test. Hoping your prompt reply thank you very much.

    • Yes she could be pregnant and having early pregnancy or maybe implantation bleeding. The stress she has been going through can also cause hormonal disturbances to delay or even cause her to miss a period.

      • matutino alog-og

        Hi doc

        Thank you for your reply last oct. 6 she started her 1st day of period but the color is just a brownish red and on her second day of period last Oct. 7 its already dark red of blood and she change 4 times napkin on that day but every napkin its not full of blood but on the forth napkin and til now there is no blood at all the question is that is it normal to have only 2 days period and she said usually her period last for 5 days she feel pain below his knee, back pain, stomach and yesterday she feel so much headache. Her last period last month is sept. 6 until
        10 but she said usually her period is every after 24 days but f she stressed it took 28 days or more. The question is what are those two days period means? Why only two days oct.7 and 8? Is it normal?

        • I do not know. She needs to see a doctor to get some tests done to see what is going on.

  17. Can It be pregnancy

  18. I took depo shot may 14 2014 one time I still have not had a menstrual its been 5 months .i was having cramps like my menstrual was starting in August and September but my menstrual still haven’t came constantly urinating horny all the time what that means

    • Yes you could be pregnant. Or it could be a side effect of the Depo shot.

      • Hi doc. I hv sex last month but my husband never left inside. I got my periods just for 2days it ws not normal. Im not sure if im ppregnancy.talk.i really want to be. My husband will always remove before it lek out. Sometimes I vill take sprems and use my fingers to insert. He dnt want baby and I want. Please helpusme

        • You need to have a proper conversation with your husband. Since he is not ejaculating inside you the chance of you getting pregnant is less but not zero. Since you recently got your period we can assume you are not pregnant. I don’t know what else to say except you need to talk to your husband and communicate your feelings about wanting a child.

  19. Hi. Doc..I got married aug 16th n I was on my period though I started seeing my period on d 14th till 19th n I had sex on dat day(19th)…I expected my period between 14th and 20th of ds mnth bt I’v nt seen my period til now…I had my last intercourse on d 14th of ds mnth n I had a hpt last wednesday which read negative…I also had a blood test last saturday n it read negative..I saw a brownish discharge which was much last saturday til ystday n I’v bn having a strange feeling in my stomach, almost always hungry, my right abdomen hurts a little n no other significant pregnancy symptom…I once had. Sharp upper right back pain…do u think I shld take d test again? I also frequently urinate at night

    • Hi, it may sometimes still be too early to get a positive result on the home pregnancy test if you are less than a week late. I would advice that you repeat the pregnancy test again in 1 week if your period has not arrive.

      • Can u tell me what wromg please ist been five months since menstrual

  20. Hi. Doc..I got married aug 16th n I was on my period though I started seeing my period on d 14th till 19th n I had sex on dat day(19th)…I expected my period between 14th and 20th of ds mnth bt I’v nt seen my period til now…I had my last intercourse on d 14th of ds mnth n I had a hpt last wednesday which read negative…I also had a blood test last saturday n it read negative..I saw a brownish discharge which was much last saturday til ystday n I’v bn having a strange feeling in my stomach, almost always hungry, my right abdomen hurts a little n no other significant pregnancy symptom…I once had. Sharp upper right back pain…do u think I shld take d test again?

  21. My last period was on August 11. Has unprotected sex on Aug 17, 20, 22, 24, 28, Sept 7 and Sept 9. Had potting on August 30, 31 and Sept 1. Experiencing preg symptoms such as morning sickness, throwing up, headache, abdominal cramps, feeling sleepy and tiredness. Had bleeding yesterday morning. Preg?

  22. Hi doc, I got two different test of pregnancy test the first one was negative(6sept) then yesterday I’m from from campus clinic its say positive.cud I be pregnant since I got my periods in April and took morning after pill twice in one cycle,sometimes I hear some weird movements inside my stomach more than 10 times a day. Please help

    • Your last period was in April and you had a positive pregnancy test. Of course you can be pregnant. Geez. Morning after pills have been known to fail. Please go see your doctor to confirm if you are pregnant or not.

  23. Hi doc, i took my PT just this morning. And it shows up w/ 2 Lines, which means its positive. Should i take another test on my 15day of delayed to re-confirm if its still positive? By the way we had sex with my partner last night, would that be affect my pregnancy?

  24. Im sorry doc, i give u the wrong date. My last mense was aug. 9 & I should have my period last sept. 9. But I still delayed until now. Should I try the pregnancy test now?

  25. yes doc, I am. I have this unsual feelings right know like; swollen,tight & heavy breast. And it so sensitive to touch. Dont have appetite to eat, bad taste buds. sometimes Im craving but i dont know what to eat. Im always feels tire & sleepy, heavy stomach like bloating.
    Do you think its too early for me to take pregnancy test?
    Hope to hear your advice soon..
    Thank You!

    • Hi Pebble, you are saying that your last period was on the 9th September, which means you haven’t miss your period yet as it is still September now. If that is the case, then it is too early to do a pregnancy test. Usually you can take the pregnancy test from the day you miss your period (when your next period is suppose to be due). Sometimes, that may still be too early, if there is a chance that you could be pregnant, would recommend that you take the pregnancy test again 1-2 weeks later after your missed period.

  26. I’m 4months lates with my periods since may till today haven’t had my periods after taking morning after pill twice in one cycle..sometimes I’m experiencing periods pain and pregnancy symptoms… Please help my stomach is always upset this lead me to confusion

    • It is completely expected for the morning after pill to delay the period. Furthermore you took it twice. Of course we must bear in mind that sometimes the morning after pill does not work and you could be pregnant. This is highly unlikely. More likely just a side effect of the morning after pill.

      • hi doc. My last period was Sept. 9 & I’m supposed to have mine this Oct. 9. But until now I’m still delayed. Is it possible that im pregnant?

        • Hi, if you are sexually active then yes there is a possibility you are pregnant. I would advice that you take a pregnancy test to check if you are or not.

          • yes doc, I am. I have this unsual feelings right know like; swollen,tight & heavy breast. And it so sensitive to touch. Dont have appetite to eat, bad taste buds. sometimes Im craving but i dont know what to eat. Feel tired always & sleepy, heavy stomach like bloating.
            Do you think its too early for me to take pregnancy test?
            Hope to hear your advice soon..
            Thank You!

  27. hey..
    i never did intercourse with my boyfriend. my periods were supposed to take place on 21st august..and today is 3rd Sept
    i am pretty sure he never ejaculated inside vagina. i had pregnancy test it was negative.
    but i am still scared.. pls help

    • It has already been close to 2 weeks from your expected period. Unlikely the pregnancy test is wrong. Give it some time. Probably a benign cause like stress causing your delayed period.

      • I’m 4months lates with my periods since may till today haven’t had my periods after taking morning after pill twice in one cycle..sometimes I’m experiencing periods pain and pregnancy symptoms… Please help my stomach is always upset this lead me to confusion

  28. Hello Doc, I had my last period on 13th of July, I had intercourse with my bf on the 4th or 5th day of period.. I usually have a 31 day cycle. On 13 th of Aug agai bg we had unprotected intercourse. Today is 31 st of Aug and I haven’t had my period yet and even preg tests are showing negative .. Could I be pregnant or is it to early to detect?

    • Hi, I would advice that you repeat the pregnancy test in 1-2 weeks time. If it is still negative, and your period has not come, then you should see a doctor for further advice.

  29. Hi Dr i was on depo for less than a year nd these year feb was my return month. i ddnt go so march i started seeing my pms till may june,july saw the red spot when i pee only for a day. now in august there was nothing & my breast are getting bigger n hav cramps in my stomach n back pain. my fiance think im pregnent due to nt using protection. im nt stressed m happy with my family. so u think what is the course of my pms n pains

    • So you were due for your Depo Shot in Feb but did not get it. Then you had unprotected sex and now you have all these symptoms. Yes I agree that you could be pregnant. Or it is some kind of hormonal imbalance. You had best take a home pregnancy test to find out.

  30. Worried

    Hi doc,
    My last started on july 12. It hasnt shown up yet until today. I had menstrual like cramping on July 15 at night. I have been sleeping about 2-5 hours these past few days. My boyfriend and I did something on august 2. it was not intercourse but ithink his penis went inside my vagina. i am worried that i am pregnant.

    • I’m sorry I do not understand what you mean when you say ‘it was not intercourse but ithink his penis went inside my vagina’. Call it what you will but that does put you at risk of pregnancy which is the most common cause of a delayed period. You had best get a home pregnancy test done.

  31. Hi doc! My last menstration is july 4-7, had spotting for 2 days (july 23-24). Now, im still waiting for my period. Yesterday (aug. 20) i had brown discharge. Am i pregnant? Thank you.

  32. Please help me, I am so confused!

    Two, maybe three days after my period ended, my bf and I had unprotected sex. It wasn’t too long, and he did not ejaculate inside me. My period has always started on the 12 of every month, some months on the 13 or 14. Depending on how many of days are in the month. I am always regular and my period cycle lasts 7 days. Now it’s time for my period to start again this month on the 12 but it hadn’t. I waited till the 17th and it still hasn’t come and shows no signs of coming. I missed my period. During that month however, (after that sex) my breasts have gotten bigger, and are tender and slightly painful. And I have been craving whole vitamin D milk. Does this mean I am pregnant? Please help me, he and I are both freaking out. All the tests I’ve taken show that I am not pregnant, they come out negative. I am so confused?:(

    • Hi Rita,

      It’s hard to say if you’re pregnant or not, although it sounds unlikely. You could be missing your menses due to stress or a whole host of other symptoms. I’d suggest waiting another week and repeating your home pregnancy test. If you’re still not having your period and your test remains negative, you can see a doctor to get checked. Occasional hiccups do happen in the menstrual cycle, quite often for no clearly definable reason, so just be patient and check again in a week.

      On a side note, I’d encourage you and your partner to practise protected intercourse to minimize the chances of an accidental pregnancy.

      • See, I have researched online what could cause me to miss my period but I don’t match any of the reasons!:( I haven’t been stressed out, I haven’t been doing anything out of the ordinary in my life, and he and I have had sex multiple times with a condom after that one night. I figured I could have gotten pregnant from the Precum, or that maybe he came inside me some and didn’t know it, even he wasn’t sure about it:(

        • That’s precisely why I say its hard to completely rule out pregnancy. Home pregnancy tests can take up to 2 weeks to turn positive. However, given the timing of your intercourse, pregnancy is fairly unlikely.

          With regards to other causes, even though we’ve been able to define a fair number of causes, a large majority of menstrual irregularities are not well defined or understood. One-off irregularities to the cycle are due to either pregnancy, follicular cysts, stress or medications while persistent irregularities in the menstrual pattern should be investigated to rule out systemic causes like thyroid dysfunction or PCOS.

  33. Please sir, please, reply me tru mail, I finished my menses on 13th- 17 the July, had sex with my husband on 22 tru 29th, then 30th and 31st, also on 2,4 and 15th of august,today is 15 the Aug, am yet to see my menses, have normal discharge bf menses, sometimes dry, sore breast,backache,always weak, little pain on my abdomen sometimes, I always feel like sleeping…high temperature sometimes,always feel cold wen others are not, I did home test between 26 n 27 and is negative n on13th, but used late night urine, after taking lots of water…. Just answer me please, tru mail

    • This forum is not for medical consultations. We can provide you with information and opinions. You still need to see your doctor for medical advice. That is why we will not reply you on email. You are of course welcome to visit our clinics anytime. It sounds to me like you are very anxious to be pregnant. You are barely due for your menses and you are already so panicked. Relax. Being so anxious will only reduce your fertility. Click this to read about things you can do to prepare yourself for conception.

  34. hi doctor i and my boyfriend had sex last july 21 and my period just finish a week ago.. his not sure if he cum inside me and its bothering me. before and after that day i feel dry.I’m expecting my period by 6th of august but till now i still don’t have. I’m experiencing a vaginal discharge like i always do when my period is coming. I’m having an irregular menstrual cycle thats y sometimes i can’t detect when is my period coming.am i in high risk of being pregnant?

    • Yes you are at risk of getting pregnant. You had sex during your fertile period. Although from the way you describe your symptoms my hunch is you are not actually pregnant but have a biochemical pregnancy. The simplest thing to do now is to get a pregnancy test. Be warned however that if you have a biochemical pregnancy, you will see a faint positive line in the pregnancy test.

      • but aftr a day i took me alaxan (paracetamol and ibuprofen) thrice and drink alcohol. do u think I’m still having a biochemical pregnancy? even though my period is irregular?

        • I am only giving you information and possibilities. This blog is not for medical advice. Please see your doctor to get a diagnosis.

  35. kymmie1223

    I am 46 and my partner is much younger than I am. I haven’t been pregnant in 17yrs. we are having unprotected sex and my last cycle was June 30- July 2 which is normal for me. We had sex July 5,6,7 and also several times in June. My Dr says that I may have endometriosis. Could I be pregnant?

    • Yes it is possible as you had sex during your fertile period.

      • hi doc. My last period was Sept. 9 & I’m supposed to have mine this Oct. 9. But until now I’m still delayed. Is it possible that im pregnant?

  36. Hi doctor,

    I wrote in below, late June with regards to a spotting. Today, I’ve missed my period for 3 days and I’m experiencing pricky feeling/cramps/pain on my stomach. Earlier this year, I went for an ultrasound and results showed that I had mild ovarian cysts both on the left and right. What could be the cause of the pain?

    My husband and I are TTC. We had intercourse on 26 June. My last period was from 16 June to 22 June. I experienced a spotting (light brownish, very small amount) on 29 June. Could I be pregnant?

  37. Hi doctor,

    My husband and I are TTC. We had intercourse on 26 June. My last period was from 16 June to 22 June. I experienced a spotting (light brownish, very small amount) on 29 June. Could I be pregnant?

    • Hi Bella,

      It’s a bit early to say. I’d advise you to wait for your next menses, and should you miss it you can do a home pregnancy test or visit your doctor. In the meantime, just keep trying. All the best!

      • Thanks for the prompt reply. Is this the best period to have intercourse?

  38. Concerned

    Hello Doctor,

    My boyfriend and I had intercourse 14 days prior to my usual period, I am confident that he did not ejaculate inside, but I experienced bright red spotting (a one time occurence) and a clear sticky discharge, I have no cramps, no cravings, nor my usual soreness. In the past I have been treated for severe infections due to chlamdyia, have been well treated and have not had intercourse until recently. Could my symptoms be a result of pregnancy?

    • One cannot diagnose pregnancy from symptoms. You had unprotected sex during your most fertile days. That puts you at risk of pregnancy even if your BF did not ejaculate in you. The only thing to do now is to see if your period will be late. If it is, get a home pregnancy test done.

  39. Hi Dr Tan,

    My last menses was on 28 Sept, lasted for about 6 days. My husband and I had the last unprotected sex on 18 Oct. I had pink spotting (not often) since yesterday. Today, I am having backache. Could I be pregnant? But, my menses are not regular. Furthermore, I had spotting before menses for the past few times. Could it be a false alarm of pregnancy?

    Thank you so much for your time.

    • It could be implantation bleeding. So yes, you could be pregnant. Whether or not it is a false alarm is really hard to tell at this point. In 2 weeks if you still have not gotten your period, go get a pregnancy test. Fingers crossed.

  40. thank you so much for your fast response drtan 😀

    no period yet as of today but in the mean time i will relax and wait. btw, i enjoyed all your articles, thanks so much for all the useful information!

  41. hello doctor,

    i had intercourse on the 29th of september twice. Penetration happened for a couple of seconds on the beginning of both intercourses before he put his condom on but he did not ejaculate at that moment. he put condom afterwards through to the end. He also cleansed and urinated in between intercourse. the first day of my last period was the 24th of september and lasted for around 4 days. my cycle is quite irregular but on average its every 28 days. so i am *assuming* that i’m supposed to have them again on 22nd of october at the latest but still no period until now (29 october, so 7 days late). i took hpt on the 25th and 27th both shown negative results.

    i have to admit i am kind of lost track of my ovulation period since my cycle is quite irregular anyway, but last time it happened (thick, stretchy clear discharge) coming on around the 5th-8th of october.

    i currently have all what looked like my usual pms symptoms both psychologically and physically such as bloating, hot flushes, abdominal cramps, pain on muscular joints, mild-medium headache, insomnia, and slightly stronger in body odor. one regular symptom is missing though – the breast pain. usually, i also have mild depression and anxiety during pms, but during my last period on september and also during these last couple of days, it snowballed to a severe paranoia. i am already under stress lately, worrying i might get pregnant (not expecting any kid currently), and because of work load and absence from exercise., so i am very biased right now wether it’s pms/pmdd or pregnancy symptoms. btw, i am currently not on pill.

    do i need another test doc, and when do you think is the best time? is it better to take another hpt or go to the doctor instead?

    thanks so much in advance 🙂

    • Your period ended on 28 Sep and your exposure was on 29 Sep. Highly unlikely you are pregnant. Relax and wait. I’m sure your preiod will come soon. Even if it does not, it is probably due to some other cause rather than pregnanct. If your period does not come in another 2 weeks, you should see your doctor.

  42. Hello doctor ,
    i had my period from 28 sept till 1 oct
    and had unprotected sex on 9 oct after which i took an i-pill within an hour .
    after two days , we just fooled around and did not have intercourse ( though he touched me down there after touching himself before ejaculation , i guess he had pre-cum on his hand)
    i started having pms like symtopms on 16 oct and getting very scanty bleeding ( thick dark brown reddish ) .

    Could i be pregnant or is it withdrawal bleeding ?
    When is it preferably the best date to perform a home pregnancy test ?
    Should i visit a doctor soon ?

    Your reply would be highly appreciated .

    • Sounds unlikely that you are pregnant. However, it is much too early to tell. You will just have to wait and do a home pregnancy test if your preiod is late. The current symptoms and spotting that you are having could very well be due to the emergency contraceptive pill that you took. Home pregnancy tests may take up to 2 weeks from the date of the expected period to be positive. You should not ask the question ‘Shoul I visit a doctor soon?’ This forum is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always visit your doctor.

  43. My last period was September 8. I began spotting October 4, light brown discharge and only very small amounts. On October 6 I took pregnancy test for a positive result. Spotting continued, same light brown discharge. It has lasted 7 days. No cramps, slight backache, extreme lethargy at times. I noticed some vaginal itching yesterday. Is it possible the discharge is a result of some infection? I do not see my OB until Oct. 25.
    Thank you so much for your advice!

    • Could be implantation bleeding. Or could be early pregnancy bleeding aka threatened abortion. Avoid sexual intercourse and get as much bed rest as you can. If the bleeding worsens please see your gynae asap.

  44. ycar123

    Me and my partner are TTC. Today I experience a spotting (just a size of a 1 cent and light brownish color), its actually my 10dpo and I took a pregnancy test this morning (4:00 am lol) ’cause I experience preg symptoms but it’s negative. but then i had this spotting just this mid day accompanied by a cramping and backpain but after 3 hours the pain are gone. Today is tuesday and I am expecting my period this saturday. Do you think i’m pregnant?

    • Hello, ycar123.

      Yes, I strongly think you are. The spotting you had typically characterizes implantation bleeding. Pregnancy symptoms you have further heightens this possibility. The negative test might be because of the fact that your pregnancy markers are still too low to be detected by the kit. Home pregnancy tests are accurate at least 2 weeks after possible conception (i.e. the last intercourse) at its earliest. A blood pregnancy test can detect pregnancy earlier than a urine one. Do repeat the test after a week or so.

      Dr De Souza

  45. hi Doc,

    firstly i must admit that i find your website extremely interesting and educational.thank you!

    im 34yr old woman my partner(43yr old) and we are extremely sexaul active.i was on the depo shot for 6months meaning i only when for 2shots. i was suppose to go for my next shot in April but decided not to use the depo or prevent no more….i met my partner on the 17th May and we have been having unprotected sex. My period started last month on the 9th Aug 2012 for 4days but was on and off. the reason for this i assumed was bcos we were having intercourse while i was on my period. i then started my period again on the 7th Sept 2012 but it was not normal as i use a panty line and change it twice a day is this normal? not forgetting that we had sex again while on my period yes! we both love making love and no period can stop us from been intimate….after my period the problems that im experiencing is backaches,tiredness, sleepless night or should i say im restless, i do drink alot of water, sometimes i experience a wave/pop/stretching feeling in my tummy followed with short cramps(dnt know how to explain it)yellowish charge that has a foul smell but only lasted for two day and now i have no charge…My partner also advised me that he cant make/have babies(low sperm count)Im confused and do not understand whats happening with my body could i be pregnant?i have not taken any home pregnancy test yet….Your urgent reply would be highly appreciated DOCTOR pretty please

    • The fact that you are not on any medical contraception and that you have been having unprotected sex means that you could be pregnant. Low sperm count does not necessarily mean that your partner cannot get your pregnant. You should do a home pregnancy test just to be sure. Also, yellow vaginal discharge is a common sign of an infection. You should see your doctor for his/her opinion and maybe need to get some tests done.

    • My period started on march 28-April 3
      I had sex on April 1 … and on April 7, On April 8-9 I experienced some spottings that only happened once when I went to the restroom. On April 13 I experienced a lot of white stuff on my underwear.. Is this normal?

    • My period started on march 28-April 3
      I had sex on April 1 … and on April 7, On April 8-9 I experienced some spottings that only happened once when I went to the restroom. On April 13 I experienced a lot of white stuff on my underwear.. Is this normal?


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